Realism is one of the approaches that has long been considered as the dominant paradigm in the study of international politics and has played an important role in shaping it. So, it has been criticized by many theoretical schools of international relations. To address these challenges, neorealism led by Kenneth Waltz sought a methodical and scientific reading of realism that conformed to conventional scientific principles and had the ability to explain international relations. The result of Waltz's attempt was neorealism based on the assumptions of positivism. Opposite to positivist views for the analysis of international politics are the religious theories of international relations. Islamic theory is the most important high-powered religious theory for understanding, explaining, and interpreting international politics. This article seeks to express the meta-theoretical foundations of both neorealist and Islamic theory and to take steps to develop the theoretical framework of the Islamic theory of international relations.